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}  Key SEO concepts
}  Search results and positioning
}  Benefits of Search Engine Results Page (SERP)
}  Stakeholders in search
}  Mechanics of search
}  The SEO process
}  Customer insights
}  Analysis and review
}  Content updates and layout
}  Meta tags
}  SEO sitemap
}  SEO webmaster tools
}  Inbound links and link building
}  Ranking
}  Laws and guidelines


}  Process of making improvements on and off your website in order to gain more exposure in search engine results, and more exposure in search engine results will automatically drive more traffic towards the web site which will lead the business.
}  Search engine deliver more relevant and authoritative material back to user in response of their search words. The search engine determine this by evaluating lots of different factors including your own website content, that how it is written and implemented in code as well as how other websites around the internet are linking to our website. all that is stuffed into a big and massive, complex algorithm.
}  Other point which search engine have in common is looking for the authority of the website while searching the user query. is your web sites trust worthy enough to be listed in the search engine.
}  One very best way of evaluating the authority/trust worthiness of any web site by search engine is by evaluating what other websites think of your website. this can be measure by the link which other websites are pointing towards my website.  the link pointing to your websites are consider as one vote. to reduce the factor of abuse on internet the search engine emphasizes on the quality of the links rather than the quantity of the links.  for example the links from trusted website which are relevant to my website field of operation or any reputable or Govt website have more weight of link then the website which is hardly one month old.  it is also called the weighted democracy.

}  Understanding Search Engine Results
}  the pages the engines return to fulfil a query are referred to as search engine results pages (SERPs). Each engine returns results in a slightly different format, and these may include vertical results—results that can be derived from different data sources or presented on the results page in a different format

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}  Each engine offers the option to search different verticals, such as images, news, video, or maps. Following these links will result in a query with a more limited index. In Last Figure, for example.


}  All of the engines show the query you’ve performed and allow you to edit or re-enter a new query from the search results page. If you begin typing, you may notice that Google gives you a list of suggested searches below. This is the Google auto complete suggestions feature, and it can be incredibly useful for targeting keywords.


}  This section provides a small amount of meta-information about the results that you’re viewing, including an estimate of the number of pages relevant to that particular query.


}  The text ads are purchased by companies that use either Google Adwords or Bing. The results are ordered by a variety of factors, including relevance (for which click-through rate, use of searched keywords in the ad, and relevance of the landing page are factors in Google) and bid amount (the ads require a maximum bid, which is then compared against other advertisers’ bids).


}  These results are pulled from the search engines’ primary indices of the Web and ranked in order of relevance and importance according to their complex algorithms.


}  Query refinements are offered by Google, Bing, and Yahoo!. The goal of these links is to let users search with a more specific and possibly more relevant query that will satisfy their intent.

}  In March 2009, Google enhanced the refinements by implementing Orion Technology, based on technology Google acquired in 2006. The goal of this enhancement is to provide a wider array of refinement choices. For example, a search on principles of physics may display refinements for the Big Bang, angular momentum, quantum physics, and special relativity.


}  Navigation to more advertising
}  Only Yahoo! shows this in the search results. Clicking on these links will bring you to additional paid search results related to the original query.
}  Be aware that the SERPs are always changing as the engines test new formats and layouts.

}  These “standard” results, however, are certainly not all that the engines have to offer.
}  For many types of queries, search engines show vertical results, or instant answers, and include more than just links to other sites to help answer a user’s questions.
}  Below is the example of these types of results. The query in Figure brings back a business listing showing an address and the option to get directions. This result attempts to provide the user with the answer he is seeking directly in the search results.

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}  This Figure is an example of a search for a well-known painter. A Google search for the famous painter Edward Hopper returns image results of some of his most memorable works (shown in the lower-right of the screenshot). If the user is interested in the first painting shown, he may well click on it to see the painting in a larger size or to get more information about it.


}  Each stakeholder in the SEO of a website has a role to play. Starting with the web site auditor (your SEOprofessional) that performs the auditing of the structure, which reports to the webmaster in order to correct all the obstacles that could hamper the indexing of the website by search engines.

}  Then the editor who works on the text content, helped by the SEO professional, who ensures the text quality on each website while respecting precise criteria.

}  The SEO professional complete the process by developing a program of communication with the search engines, analyzing the best combinations of keywords of the website and in optimizing the website. The SEO professional then becomes a consultant for all stakeholders.

Mechanics of Search

}  Crawling and Indexing
}  Retrieval and Ranking

Crawling and Indexing

}  To offer the best possible results, search engines must attempt to discover all the public pages on the World Wide Web and then present the ones that best match up with the user’s search query. The first step in this process is crawling the Web. The search engines start with a seed set of sites that are known to be very high quality, and then visit the links on each page of those sites to discover other web pages.
}  The link structure of the Web serves to bind together all of the pages that were made public as a result of someone linking to them. Through links, search engines’ automated
}  robots, called crawlers or spiders, can reach the many trillions of interconnected documents. 

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}  In above Figure, you can see the home page of, the official U.S. government website. The links on the page are outlined in red. Crawling this page would start with loading the page, analyzing the content, and then seeing what other pages links to.

}  The search engine would then load those other pages and analyze that content as well.
}  This process repeats over and over again until the crawling process is complete.
}  This process is enormously complex, as the Web is a large and complex place.


}  Search engines do not attempt to crawl the entire Web every day. In fact, they may become aware of pages that they choose not to crawl because those pages are not likely to be important enough to return in a search result.
}  The first step in this process is to build an index of terms. This is a massive database that catalogs all the significant terms on each page crawled by the search engine.
}  lots of other data is also recorded, such as a map of all the pages that each page links to, the clickable text of those links (known as the anchor text), whether or not those links are considered ads, and more.
}  To accomplish the monumental task of holding data on hundreds of trillions of pages that can be accessed in a fraction of a second, the search engines have constructed massive data centres to deal with all this data.
}  One key concept in building a search engine is deciding where to begin a crawl of the Web. Although you could theoretically start from many different places on the Web,
}  you would ideally begin your crawl with a trusted seed set of websites. Starting with a known, trusted set of websites enables search engines to measure how much they trust the other websites that they find through the crawling process.


}  The next step in this quest occurs when the search engine returns a list of relevant pages on the Web in the order it believes is most likely to satisfy the user. This process requires the search engines to scour their corpus of hundreds of billions of documents and do two things: first, return only the results that are related to the searcher’s query; and second, rank the results in order of perceived importance (taking into account the trust and authority associated with the site). It is both relevance and importance that the process of SEO is meant to influence.
}  Relevance is the degree to which the content of the documents returned in a search matches the user’s query intention and terms. The relevance of a document increases if the page contains terms relevant to the phrase queried by the user, or if links to the page come from relevant pages and use relevant anchor text.
}  You can think of relevance as the first step to being “in the game.” If you are not relevant to a query, the search engine does not consider you for inclusion in the search results for that query.
}  You can think of importance as a way to determine which page, from a group of equally relevant pages, shows up first in the search results, which is second, and so forth. The relative authority of the site, and the trust the search engine has in it, are significant parts of this determination. Ultimately, it is the combination of relevance and importance that determines the ranking order.

}  In order for Google to rank quality sites higher (and remove pointless link directories and content farms) it keeps a list of websites known as seed sites.
}  These are websites that it whole heartedly trusts will not engage in any black hat, or even grey hat, SEO.
}  The list is not in the public domain but some obvious ones would be Wikipedia, many mainstream news websites (e.g., hand edited directories (e.g. Yellow Pages), etc.
}  When looking at other websites one of the factors Google takes into account is how many links away it is from a Seed Site.
}  So if Website A has a link from Wikipedia it is one link away from a Seed Site and that's a positive result. If Wikipedia links to Website B which then links to Website A this is still positive but does not have the same strength.
}  Many professional link builders will spend a great deal of time trying to secure a link on a Seed Site (or what they think is or will become a Seed Site) because of how powerful this can be in Google's ranking decisions.

}  On-page SEO is the practice of optimizing individual web pages in order to rank higher and earn more relevant traffic in search engines. On-page refers to both the content and HTML source code of a page that can be optimized, as opposed to off-page SEO which refers to links and other external signals.

}  Content of Page
}  Images Alt Text
}  Title Tag
}  URL

}  Off page optimization refers to all the measures that can be taken outside of the actual website in order to improve its position in search rankings. These are measures that help create as many high-quality back links (incoming links) as possible.


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}  Woo Rank

}  A basic process for assessing a keyword’s value
}  Ask yourself
}  Search for the term/phrase in the major engines
}  Buy a sample campaign for the keyword at Google Adwords and/or Bing Adcenter
}  Using the data you’ve collected, determine the exact value of each keyword
}  Long Tail of Keyword


}  Moz Keyword Explorer
}  Google AdWords Keyword Planner Tool
}  Google Trends
}  Microsoft Bing Ads Intelligence
}  Wordtracker’s Free Basic Keyword Demand

Content Updates & Layout

}  Content Is King
}  Segmenting Your Site’s Audience
}  Spelling and grammatical errors
}  Reading level of the website content
}  User Interaction
}  Interaction with web search results
}  Bounce rate, Time on site, Page views per visitor,
}  Link Analysis

Meta Tags

}  SEO metadata is what appears on search engine result pages (SERP) when a website comes up for certain queries. It includes the title of the page and its met description (descriptive text below the title).
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}  A Sitemap is an XML file that is full of your individual webpage’s URLs. It’s like an archive of every webpage in your website. This file should be easily discoverable in your site in order for search engine crawlers to stumble upon it.
}  A Sitemap is usually used for the purpose of letting the search engine crawlers follow the links to all your individual WebPages so that it won’t miss out on anything.
}  Sometimes we leave out URLs or hide them from all visible pages because we don’t exactly want some of the users to go there. As a result, some of these URLs are uncrawlable to search engine spiders.
}  We can still leave those URLs hidden from some users without having to lose out on those pages not being crawled by search engine spiders through including them in an XML Sitemap.


}  Google Analytics
}  Google Webmaster Tool.
}  Moz Pro SEO Suit
}  Others Software's available in the Market.


}  For search engines that crawl the vast metropolis of the web, links are the streets between pages. Using sophisticated link analysis, the engines can discover how pages are related to each other and in what ways.
}  Used by search engines
}  Global Popularity
}  Local/Topic-Specific Popularity
}  Anchor Text
}  Trust Rank
}  Link Neighbourhood
}  Freshness
}  Social Sharing


}  Rankings in SEO refers to a website’s position in the search engine results page. There are various ranking factors that influence whether a website appears higher on the SERP based on the content relevance to the search term, or the quality of links pointing to the page. Every search engine gives different weights to these ranking factors which is why when you enter the same search term in different search engines you will generally get different results.
}  Ranking factors play a huge role in SEO and the overall digital marketing strategy of a website. SEO, in particular, is a specific discipline focused on the optimizations needed to have a technically sound domain and delivering on content that is relevant to users and ultimately attracts the right customers to your business. Understanding which ranking factors are relevant to your industry is key to becoming an authoritative domain – especially in the competitive industries of e-commerce, finance and health.


}  Quality Optimization.
}  Black Hat SEO tactics are disapproved practices that increase page rankings in a SERP by going against that search engine’s terms of service. Black Hat techniques range from keyword stuffing, using unrelated keywords in page content, and invisible text to doorway pages, page swapping, redirects and content automation.
}  White Hat is preferable to Black Hat in that said practices are ethical and sustainable. Black Hat practices are effective, but are risky and can cause your site to be reported.
}  Grey Hat SEO, on the other hand, is SEO practice that remains “ill-defined” and/or “ill-advised” by search engine published guidelines and which can be disagreeable.  For example, click bait. Click bait refers to a practice where someone posts something like an eye catching link or piece of content that encourages a reader to click and read more.


}  Read that all again and check any sample website by using the tools which are mentioned in this course. Make a Report as per your findings.

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